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放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2011-08-12
核心提示:影片《食品公司》从快餐业入手,逐步向种植业、畜牧业、养殖业延展开去,揭露了大型食品公司经营者为了获取高额利润,不惜改变动植物生长方式和生长周期,从而在经营上取得丰厚利润的黑幕。而代价却是公众的健康和安全。影片获得了2009年华盛顿影评人协会最佳纪录片奖。



[00:02.70]was to take the veil-- lift the veil away 就是要摘掉这层面纱
[00:05.38]from important subjects that are being hidden. 摘掉掩盖着重要议题的遮羞布
[00:10.38](film projector clicking)
[00:12.58]schlosser: the whole industrial food system 工业化的食物生产系统
[00:14.58]really began with fast food. 其实起源于快餐
[00:18.10]in the 1930s, 20世纪30年代
[00:21.26]a new form of restaurant arose 一种新型的餐馆兴起
[00:22.26]and it was called the drive-in. 它叫"免下车餐馆"
[00:27.46]the mcdonald brothers had a very successful drive-in, 麦当劳兄弟经营这一家非常成功的免下车餐馆
[00:29.98]but they decided to cut costs and simplify. 但是他们决定要节省成本,简化流程
[00:34.82]so they fired all their carhops, 于是他们裁掉了所有侍者
[00:37.82]they got rid of most of the things on the menu 又把菜单尽量简化
[00:38.18]and they created a revolutionary idea 这就是他们在餐厅经营方面
[00:42.50]to how to run a restaurant. 的一个革命性的创新
[00:44.18]they basically brought the factory system 他们基本上把食品工厂
[00:45.38]to the back of the restaurant kitchen. 搬到了餐厅厨房后面
[00:51.06]they trained each worker to just do one thing 他们只训练每个员工做一件事
[00:54.38]again and again and again. 周而复始地做同一件事
[00:58.58]by having workers who only had to do one thing, 因为每个员工只需要做一件事
[01:02.26]they could pay them a low wage 所以他们的工资很低
[00:00.00]by: 更多电影原声mp3尽在人人听力网 http://www.rrting.com/english/movie_mp3/
[01:04.94]and it was very easy to find someone to replace them. 也很容易找到其他人来代替这些员工
[01:09.62]it was inexpensive food, it tasted good 这些食物很便宜,味道也不错
[01:13.30]and this mcdonald’s fast food restaurant 从此,麦当劳快餐
[01:14.50]was a huge huge success. 走上了巨大成功之路
[01:19.70]麦当劳兄弟
[01:22.34]that mentality of uniformity, 这种生产无差别
[01:25.50]conformity and cheapness 而又廉价的食物的思路
[01:27.54]applied widely and on a large scale 在各方面被广泛应用
[01:28.38]has all kinds of unintended consequences. 造成了许多意料之外的后果
[01:31.22](mooing)
[01:36.90]when mcdonald’s is the largest purchaser 当麦当劳成为了
[01:38.74]of ground beef in the united states 美国最大的碎牛肉买家之后
[01:42.58]and they want their hamburgers 他们希望他们的汉堡
[01:44.58]to taste, everywhere, exactly the same, 无论在哪里买的,吃起来都是一样的味道
[01:45.10]they change how ground beef is produced. 于是他们促成了碎牛肉生产方式的变革
[01:52.30]the mcdonald’s corporation 麦当劳公司
[01:54.30]is the largest purchaser of potatoes 是世界上最大的马铃薯买家
[01:57.98]and one of the largest purchasers of pork, 也是下列食品的最大买家之一,包括猪肉
[02:00.66]chicken, tomatoes, lettuce, even apples. 鸡肉,西红柿,生菜,甚至苹果
[02:05.02]these big big fast food chains 这些庞大的快餐连锁店
[02:07.54]want big suppliers. 想要大型的供应商
[02:09.54]and now there are essentially a handful of companies 实际上,现在只有几家公司
[02:12.22]controlling our food system. 控制着我们的食物供应系统
[02:20.74]in the 1970s, the top five beef-packers 在20世纪70年代,最大的5家牛肉供应商
[02:23.74]controlled only about 25% of the market. 只占有25%左右的市场份额
[02:26.62]today, the top four 到今天,最大的4家
[02:32.10]control more than 80% of the market. 就占据了超过80%的市场份额
[02:34.98]you see the same thing happening now in pork. 同样的事情也发生在猪肉市场
[02:42.14]even if you don’t eat at a fast food restaurant, 即使你从不在快餐店吃东西
[02:47.02]by this system. 生产的
[02:52.22]you look at the labels 肉类产品上的标签
[02:54.86]and you see farmer this, farmer that-- 总是写着农夫张三,农夫李四
[02:56.22]it’s really just three or four companies 但其实只有三四家公司
[03:00.06]that are controlling the meat. 控制着肉类生产
[03:02.42]we’ve never had food companies this big 历史上从来没有过规模这么庞大的食品公司
[03:06.26]and this powerful in our history. 也没有过实力这么强大的食品公司
[03:07.42]tyson, for example, 举个例子,泰森公司
[03:09.42]is the biggest meat-packing company in the history of the world. 它是世界上有史以来最大的肉类供应商
[03:15.30]the industry changed the entire way that chicken are raised. 食品工业彻底改变了鸡的饲养
[03:19.98]birds are now raised and slaughtered 现在,鸡从开始饲养到宰杀
[03:22.66]in half the time they were 50 years ago, 花的时间只是50年前的一半
[03:23.98]but now they’re twice as big. 不过它们却长到50年前的2倍大
[03:25.02]people like to eat white meat, 人们喜欢吃白肉
[03:29.18]so they redesigned the chicken 于是食品公司通过选育和基因工程
[03:30.02]to have large breasts. 让鸡胸肉长得更大
[03:36.22]- (cheeping) - they not only changed the chicken, 他们不但改变了鸡
[03:39.38]they changed the farmer. 还改变了鸡农
[03:41.22]today, chicken farmers no longer control their birds. 现在的鸡农不再拥有他们饲养的鸡
[03:43.26](thudding) 像泰森这样的大公司
[03:46.26]a company like tyson
[03:46.58]owns the birds from the day they’re dropped off 从小鸡孵出来就拥有它们的所有权
[03:51.94]until the day that they’re slaughtered. 直到它们被宰杀的时候
[03:53.94](buzzes)
[03:54.10]let me go to the top. 让我们从行业顶端开始看
[03:57.30]- man: this is the chicken-- - national chicken council. -例如鸡肉 -全国养鸡业协会
[03:58.82]the chicken industry has really set a model 养鸡业已经建立了一个榜样 richard lobb:美国国家养鸡业协会
[04:01.82]for the integration of production, processing 一个把肉类产品的生产,处理
[04:03.82]and marketing of the products 和营销整合起来的榜样
[04:07.18]that other industries are now following 其他行业也在按这个模式运营
[04:08.86]because they see that we have achieved tremendous economies. 因为他们看到了我们获得的巨大经济效益
[04:16.70]in a way, we’re not producing chickens; 从某个角度看来,我们不是在养鸡
[04:18.38]we’re producing food. 我们是在生产食物
[04:21.22]it’s all highly mechanized. 这个行业已经高度商业化
[04:24.90]so all the birds coming off those farms 所以,所有从农场出来的鸡
[04:25.42]have to be almost exactly the same size. 必须差不多是一样的大小
[04:31.58]what the system of intensive production accomplishes 集约化生产系统的成果
[04:33.62]is to produce a lot of food 就是利用少量土地
[04:39.78]on a small amount of land 生产了大量食物
[04:40.30]at a very affordable price. 而且价格低廉
[04:44.66]now somebody explain to me what’s wrong with that. 试问有谁会认为这种生产方式不妥呢?
[04:49.98]麦克莱恩县 肯塔基州
[04:58.10]烟草需求下降后 美国南方许多农场主转向鸡只饲养 参见:美国众议院通过烟草管理法案 烟草业遭重创
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