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放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2011-09-13
核心提示:你在做甜点或蛋糕的时候或多或少都会用到下面这些知识。有些可以让机器帮忙,有些只有手工制作效果才好。都不是什么难事儿,但却是成败的关键,所以一定要严格照办。


1. fundamental techniques and information基本技巧和基础知识
one or several of the following processes will be a part of almost any dessert or cake recipe you encounter. some can be accomplished by machine, others are better performed by hand. none is difficult, but all contribute to the success of your dish and must be done precisely.
你在做甜点或蛋糕的时候或多或少都会用到下面这些知识。有些可以让机器帮忙,有些只有手工制作效果才好。都不是什么难事儿,但却是成败的关键,所以一定要严格照办。

2. egg whites如何打发蛋白
innumerable desserts, as well as souffles and all the spongecakes, call for stiffly beaten egg whites. successful cooking of any of these dishes is usually dependent on how voluminous and stiff you have beaten the egg whites, and how carefully you have folded them into the rest of the ingredients. as they are so important, we shall continually put in little reminders and warnings about them. directions and illustrations for egg whites begin on page 159, in the entree chapter. you will note that in all the recipes for beaten egg whites in this chapter a tablespoon of sugar is whipped into them near the end of the beating; this gives them an added bit of stiffness and body. you will also note that egg whites may be folded into either a hot or a cold sauce or batter; unlike whipped cream, which liquefies when it comes in contact with hot ingredients, egg whites are not affected.
甜点中用到打发蛋白的例子数不胜数,舒芙厘和海绵蛋糕都属此列。蛋白打发后的膨胀程度和发泡程度,将蛋白翻拌入其他配料中时够不够小心,这些往往都是这类甜点成功与否的关键。因为这些步骤实在太重要了,所以我们会不时地加些小提示和小提醒来帮助你。在第159页,主菜那章中已经对蛋白的做法进行了一些讲解和图示。你会注意到本章中打发蛋白时最后都要加入一汤匙白糖,这样可以增加发泡和膨松的程度。你还会注意到有时可能会要求你把蛋白翻拌到或热或冷的酱汁或面糊里头,不像打发的奶油接触到热的配料就会液化,蛋白没有这个问题。

3. beating eggs and sugar to form the ribbon如何将蛋黄和糖打发成丝带
whenever egg yolks and sugar are beaten together the recipe will say to continue beating "until the mixture is pale yellow and forms the ribbon." this prepares the egg yolks so that they can be heated without turning granular.
甜点食谱中只要里提到将蛋黄和糖放在一起搅打,就会提到要搅打至“浅黄色并呈丝带状”。搅打到这个程度的蛋黄在加热时就不会结块了。

to accomplish it, add the sugar gradually to the egg yolks in a mixing bowl while beating with a wire whip or an electric beater; continue beating for 2 to 3 minutes. the mixture will turn a pale, creamy yellow, and thicken enough so that when a bit is lifted in the beater, it will fall back into the bowl forming a slowly dissolving ribbon on the surface of the mixture. do not beat beyond this point or the egg yolks may become granular.
要达到这种程度,需要一边用打蛋器或电动搅拌机搅打碗里的蛋黄,一边慢慢儿加糖,要持续搅打2到3分钟。混合的蛋液会变成浅黄色,奶糊状,而且够粘稠,用搅拌器拎起来一点就会像丝带散落一样慢慢儿落回碗里。不过也别搅打过头了,不然蛋黄液可能会结块。

4. whipped cream如何打发奶油
as used in french cooking, whipped cream should double in volume, and be light, smooth, and free from granules. much the same principles apply to it as to the beating of egg whites, in that you must incorporate as much air as possible. the stationary electric beater never produces as smooth and light a cream as could be wished; the electric blender is not recommended at all. chilled whipping cream beaten at a leisurely pace of 2 strokes per second with a chilled wire whip in a chilled bowl will easily mount in 2 to 3 minutes. if you cannot bear the thought of not using your electric beater, circulate it by hand, starting at a slow speed and gradually increasing it to moderate, while lifting as much air as possible into the cream.
法式烹饪中用的奶油要打发到体积膨胀一倍,轻柔,光滑,绝不能结块。打发奶油的基本方法跟打发蛋白的方法相仿,要让空气尽可能多地进去。这种时候固定式的电动打蛋器不怎么好用,打不出又轻又滑的奶油,电动搅拌器就更不推荐了。其实拿一只冰过的线状打蛋器,再把冰过的奶油放在一只冰过的碗里,以每秒两下的搅打速度悠哉悠哉地搅打2到3分钟就能大功告成了。如果你实在是想用你的电动打蛋器,那就要用手拿着打蛋器,一边搅打一边在碗里绕圈,先从低速开始,逐渐调整为中速,要把空气尽可能多地搅进去。

电动搅拌器


固定式打蛋器


手持式电动打蛋器

线状打蛋器


warning小提醒
if whipped cream is to be folded into other ingredients, be sure the other ingredients are cold; otherwise the cream will lose its stiffness and thin out.
如果要把打发的奶油翻拌到其他配料里去,那要确保其他配料是冷的,否则奶油就会失去发泡的效果瘪下去。

a note on french cream关于法式奶油的注意事项
although french cream fraiche and american whipping cream both contain approximately the same amount of butter fat, the consistency of french cream is thicker because it is slightly fermented. it must be thinned before whipping by the addition of 1 part of cold milk, iced water, or shaved ice for every 3 parts of cream.
虽然法式奶油和美式淡奶油的油脂含量相仿,但由于法式奶油略微发酵过,所以粘稠度较高。在搅打前一定要按1份冷牛奶,冰水或刨冰和3份奶油的比例将奶油调稀。
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creme chantilly奶油霜
lightly beaten cream] [湿性起泡奶油]
this is lightly beaten cream, which is usually specified for such desserts as bavarian cream, and for dessert sauces.
奶油霜是轻度打发的奶油,常用于一些特定的甜点中,例如巴伐利亚布丁(bavarian cream)和一些甜品酱汁中。

for about 2cups约2量杯
1/2 pint (1 cup) chilled whipping cream 冷藏淡奶油1/2品脱(1量杯)
a chilled 3-quart bowl冰镇过的容量为3夸脱的碗一只
a chilled wire whip or chilled blades of electric beater 冰镇过的线状打蛋器一只或将电动搅拌机的搅拌棒冰镇后使用

slowly until it begins to foam, while circulating the beater all around the bowl and lifting the cream as you whip it. gradually increase the beating speed to moderate and continue until the beater leaves light traces on the surface of the cream. a bit of cream lifted and dropped on the surface will softly retain its shape.
将淡奶油倒入冰过的碗中,慢速搅打至起泡,搅打的过程中打蛋器要在碗中绕圈并提拉奶油。渐渐加快搅打的速度至中速,直至打蛋器能在奶油表面留下浅浅的痕迹。沾起来的一点奶油落到表面上时还能保持形状。
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stiffly beaten cream干性起泡奶油
for desserts which require more body, continue beating a few seconds more until the cream is a little bit stiffer and forms soft peaks. do not beat beyond this stage or the cream will become granular, and then begin to turn into butter.
如果要制作蓬松型的甜点,那就再多搅打一会儿,直至奶油有点发硬,能够形成一个软的尖角。到这个程度就不要再搅打了,不然奶油会结块,这其实是要开始变成黄油了。
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storing whipped cream如何存放打发的奶油
once cream is whipped, it will keep for several hours under refrigeration. as it usually exudes a bit of liquid, it is a good idea to turn it into a fine-meshed sieve and place the sieve over a bowl. this allows any seeping liquid to drop out of the cream.
奶油打发后冷藏的话可以存放数小时。不过打发好的奶油里常会渗出液体,所以把奶油放进一个网眼很细的筛子里,再把筛子架在碗上面,就可以让渗出来的液体直接掉到碗里去。
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flavored whipped cream为打发好的奶油调味
before serving, fold in 2 tablespoons of sifted powdered sugar and a tablespoon or two of brandy, rum, or sweet liqueur, or a teaspoon or two of vanilla extract.
使用前,用2汤匙筛过的糖粉,或是一到两汤匙白兰地,朗姆酒或甜的利口酒,再或者是一到两茶匙的香草精,翻拌到奶油中去。

5. creaming butter and sugar如何打发黄油和糖
numerous dessert and cake recipes direct that butter and sugar be creamed together; this may be accomplished either by machine or by hand.
许多做甜点和蛋糕的食谱里都写明了要将黄油和糖一同打发,电动或手工打发都可以。

electric beater 电动搅打
use the pastry-blender attachment if you have one; you may use the regular beater, but the blades will become clogged. cut the butter into 1/2-inch pieces. warm the large mixing bowl in hot water. dry it, add the butter and sugar, and beat at a moderate speed for several minutes. the mixture is ready to be used when it is light, fluffy, and a pale ivory color.
如果你有搅拌面糊用的搅拌棒,那一定要用这个;你也可以用普通的搅拌器,但是那些打起来会不太顺畅。把黄油切成0.5英寸见方的小块,拿一只大号搅拌碗放在热水里加热,然后擦干,放入黄油块和糖,中速搅打几分钟。当混合的黄油糊变得很轻,蓬松,有点发白就可以了。

hand beating手工搅打
if the butter has been left at room temperature for an hour to soften, simply beat the butter and sugar together in a bowl for several minutes until they form a light, fluffy mass. for cold, hard butter, use the following system: cut the butter into 1/2inch pieces and place it with the sugar in a mixing bowl set over barely simmering water. beat with a wooden spoon for several seconds until the butter softens. then set the bowl in a basin of cold water and beat for a minute or two until the mixture is light, fluffy, and a pale ivory color.
如果已经将黄油预先放在室温下回温一个小时至软化,那就只需简单地将黄油和糖放在碗中搅打数分钟直至变轻,蓬松起来即可。如果黄油还冻得硬梆梆的,那就这么办:把黄油切成0.5英寸见方的小块,跟糖一起放入搅拌碗中,再将碗放在几乎要沸腾的水中。用木勺搅打数秒,直至黄油变软。然后再把碗拿出来放在一盆冷水中,再搅打一到两分钟直至黄油糊变得很轻,蓬松,有点发白就可以了。

6. melted chocolate如何融化巧克力
because baking chocolate burns easily, you should watch it carefully while it melts. to melt chocolate, break it into small pieces or use chocolate drops (2 ounces make 1/3 cup). place the chocolate in a small saucepan with 1/2 to 1 tablespoon strong coffee, rum, or water per ounce or square. set the pan over hot but not simmering water and stir constantly with a wooden spoon for several minutes until the chocolate has melted to a perfectly smooth cream. keep the saucepan in warm water until you are ready to use the chocolate.
巧克力很容易烧焦,所以在融化巧克力的时候一定要盯着点。先把巧克力切成小块,或是直接用小块的巧克力(译注:像好时的kisses那样的),2盎司巧克力融化后大概能装1/3量杯。把巧克力放在一只小锅里,按每盎司0.5到1汤匙的比例加入浓咖啡,朗姆酒或是水。将锅子放在暖水里,注意不是滚水,用木勺不断搅拌三五分钟,直至巧克力完全融化,变成均匀光滑的巧克力酱。

7. almonds杏仁
whole, slivered, and powdered almonds have many uses in french pastries and desserts. luckily you can buy blanched almonds in airtight cans at almost any american market, and although you do not often see powdered almonds, it is easy to do them in the electric blender. you will note that all the recipes which use almonds also call for a bit of almond extract to bring out the almond taste. this is not necessary in france, as one or two bitter almonds are always included. but as the oil of bitter almonds is poisonous when taken in too large a quantity, it can only be bought with a doctor's prescription in this country. but be careful with almond extract. it is strong; a few drops or a quarter teaspoon arc usually sufficient.
不论是整个儿的杏仁,杏仁片还是杏仁粉,在法式糕饼和甜点中都大有用武之地。真空包装的去皮杏仁随便在哪个超市都买得到,这可是个好消息,而且虽说杏仁粉不大常见,但用电动研磨器很容易就能磨出来。你会发现几乎所有用到杏仁的食谱都会要求你用点儿杏仁香精来调(diao)出杏仁的香味。法式烹饪中不是这样的,而是会放上一两个苦杏仁。不过由于苦杏仁油大量摄入时会致人中毒,所以在美国只有拿着医生的处方才能买到苦杏仁。不过用杏仁香精时也得当心点儿,因为它的味道很重,一般来说用几滴或1/4茶匙的杏仁香精就足够了。

1)measurements如何称量杏仁
four ounces of whole, broken, or powdered almonds are equivalent to about 3/4cup or 125grams.
4盎司完整的杏仁,杏仁片或杏仁粉大概是3/4量杯或125克。

2)blanched almonds 如何给杏仁去皮
drop shelled almonds into boiling water and boil 1 minute. drain. squeeze each almond between the thumb and forefinger, and the almond will slip out of its skin. spread the blanched almonds in a roasting pan and dry them out for 5 minutes in a 35o-degree oven.
把带壳的杏仁丢入滚水中滚上个一分钟,沥干,用大拇指和食指挤压,杏仁就会很容易地从皮里滑出来。把去皮后的杏仁撒在烤盘里,用350度的炉温烘培5分钟。

3)pulverized almonds 如何磨碎杏仁
if you do not have an electric blender, pound the almonds with a bit of granulated sugar in a mortar, or pass them through a meat grinder with granulated sugar and a few drops of water. if you have a blender, pulverize them 1/2 cup at a time at top speed for about 30 seconds.
如果你没有电动研磨机,那就把杏仁放在研钵里,加点儿白砂糖,敲碎,或是加点白砂糖和数滴水后放入绞肉机里绞一下。如果你有电动研磨机,那就一次放半量杯杏仁下去,用最高速研磨30秒钟。

4)toasted or grilled almonds烤杏仁或烘杏仁
spread whole, slivered, or powdered almonds in a roasting pan and set in a 35o-degree oven for about 10 minutes. stir them up frequently and keep an eye on them so they do not burn. they should emerge an even, light, toasty brown.
把整个儿的杏仁,杏仁片或杏仁粉撒在烤盘里,在350度炉温下烘培约10分钟。要不时地拨弄拨弄杏仁,而且一定要盯着点,不然很容易烤焦。烤好的杏仁应该呈现均匀的,淡淡的,烘培后的焦黄色。
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果仁糖(pralin )
[caramelized almonds] [焦糖杏仁]
this delicious ingredient is quickly made and can be stored for weeks in a screw-topped jar. it is used in desserts and sauces, as a sprinkling for ice cream, and as a flavoring for cake icings and fillings. in france, pralin is also made with hazel nuts or a mixture of hazel nurs and almonds.
这道美味的甜点配料简单易做,而且可以存放在带盖(螺旋盖)的罐子里数周不坏。它可以用在甜点或甜酱里,也可以撒在冰淇淋上,制作蛋糕上的糖霜或馅料时也可以拿它来调味。在法国,有时也用榛仁或是把榛仁和杏仁混起来制作果仁糖。

for about 1 cup约1量杯
1/2 cup slivered or powdered almonds 杏仁片或杏仁粉0.5量杯
1/2 cup granulated sugar白砂糖0.5量杯
an oiled marble slab or large baking sheet 一只涂过油的大理石板 或大号烤盘

toast the almonds in a 3so-degree oven as previously described.
按前面讲过的方法将杏仁放入350度的烤箱中烘培。

boil the sugar and water in a small saucepan until the sugar caramelizes (see directions for caramel farther on). immediately stir in the toasted almonds. bring just to the boil, then pour onto the marble or baking sheet. when cold, in about 10 minutes, break the hardened mass into pieces. pulverize in the electric blender, pound to a coarse powder in a mortar, or put it through a meat grinder.
将糖和水放入一只小锅里煮沸,直至糖焦化(参见下面将要讲到的焦糖的做法)。马上把烘培好的杏仁倒下去搅拌。继续煮,到刚刚开始沸腾时,将杏仁和糖浆倒在大理石板或烤盘上。冷却后,大约需要十分钟,把这一大块硬东西敲碎。丢到电动研磨器里磨碎,或是放在研钵里捣碎,用绞肉机也可以。
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pulverized macaroons碎杏仁饼
pulverized stale macaroons may be substituted for pralin. break macaroons into small pieces, spread them in a roasting pan, and set in a 200-degree oven for about an hour. remove when they are fairly dry and lightly browned; they will crisp up as they cool. when crisped, pulverize them in the electric blender, pound in a mortar, or put them through a meat grinder. store in a screw-topped jar where they will keep for weeks.
把放了好一阵子的有点不大新鲜杏仁饼弄碎了就可以代替果仁糖。把杏仁饼掰碎后撒在烤盘上,放在200度的烤箱中烘培约1小时,等杏仁饼变得很干而且微微变成焦黄色时就可以了,冷却后会变得很脆。这时就可以放进电动研磨器中磨碎,或是放在研钵里捣碎,也可以用绞肉机。存放在有盖(螺旋盖)的罐子里,可保数周不坏。
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caramel焦糖
caramel is sugar syrup cooked until it turns a light, nut brown. it is used as a flavoring or coloring, or for coating a mold.
把糖酱烧至浅浅的类似坚果的褐色时就是焦糖了。焦糖可以用来调味或上色,也可以用来涂抹在模具上。

for about 1/2 cup约0.5量杯
2/3 cup granulated sugar or crushed sugar lumps白砂糖或打碎的方糖2/3量杯
1/3 cup water水1/3量杯
a small, heavy saucepan 一只小号的较重的锅子

place sugar and water in saucepan and swirl (shake pan with circular motion) over moderately high heat until the sugar has dissolved completely. then let the sugar boil, swirling the pan occasionally, until the syrup turns a light, nut brown. this will take 3 to 4 minutes. remove saucepan from heat as soon as the desired color is reached; if you let it darken too much, it will have a bitter taste. use immediately, as directed
将糖和水放入锅中,开中高火,将锅子放在火上打转(绕着圈儿晃动锅子),直至糖完全溶解。然后将糖浆烧开,不时地转圈晃动锅子,直至糖浆变成浅浅的类似坚果的褐色。这个过程大概需要3到4分钟。颜色一变就马上把锅子拿开,煮的太焦吃起来会有点儿苦。要按照食谱中的说明把焦糖马上用掉。

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