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1. fundamental techniques and information基本技巧和基础知识
one or several of the following processes will be a part of almost any dessert or cake recipe you encounter. some can be accomplished by machine, others are better performed by hand. none is difficult, but all contribute to the success of your dish and must be done precisely.

2. egg whites如何打发蛋白
innumerable desserts, as well as souffles and all the spongecakes, call for stiffly beaten egg whites. successful cooking of any of these dishes is usually dependent on how voluminous and stiff you have beaten the egg whites, and how carefully you have folded them into the rest of the ingredients. as they are so important, we shall continually put in little reminders and warnings about them. directions and illustrations for egg whites begin on page 159, in the entree chapter. you will note that in all the recipes for beaten egg whites in this chapter a tablespoon of sugar is whipped into them near the end of the beating; this gives them an added bit of stiffness and body. you will also note that egg whites may be folded into either a hot or a cold sauce or batter; unlike whipped cream, which liquefies when it comes in contact with hot ingredients, egg whites are not affected.

3. beating eggs and sugar to form the ribbon如何将蛋黄和糖打发成丝带
whenever egg yolks and sugar are beaten together the recipe will say to continue beating "until the mixture is pale yellow and forms the ribbon." this prepares the egg yolks so that they can be heated without turning granular.

to accomplish it, add the sugar gradually to the egg yolks in a mixing bowl while beating with a wire whip or an electric beater; continue beating for 2 to 3 minutes. the mixture will turn a pale, creamy yellow, and thicken enough so that when a bit is lifted in the beater, it will fall back into the bowl forming a slowly dissolving ribbon on the surface of the mixture. do not beat beyond this point or the egg yolks may become granular.

4. whipped cream如何打发奶油
as used in french cooking, whipped cream should double in volume, and be light, smooth, and free from granules. much the same principles apply to it as to the beating of egg whites, in that you must incorporate as much air as possible. the stationary electric beater never produces as smooth and light a cream as could be wished; the electric blender is not recommended at all. chilled whipping cream beaten at a leisurely pace of 2 strokes per second with a chilled wire whip in a chilled bowl will easily mount in 2 to 3 minutes. if you cannot bear the thought of not using your electric beater, circulate it by hand, starting at a slow speed and gradually increasing it to moderate, while lifting as much air as possible into the cream.





if whipped cream is to be folded into other ingredients, be sure the other ingredients are cold; otherwise the cream will lose its stiffness and thin out.

a note on french cream关于法式奶油的注意事项
although french cream fraiche and american whipping cream both contain approximately the same amount of butter fat, the consistency of french cream is thicker because it is slightly fermented. it must be thinned before whipping by the addition of 1 part of cold milk, iced water, or shaved ice for every 3 parts of cream.
creme chantilly奶油霜
lightly beaten cream] [湿性起泡奶油]
this is lightly beaten cream, which is usually specified for such desserts as bavarian cream, and for dessert sauces.
奶油霜是轻度打发的奶油,常用于一些特定的甜点中,例如巴伐利亚布丁(bavarian cream)和一些甜品酱汁中。

for about 2cups约2量杯
1/2 pint (1 cup) chilled whipping cream 冷藏淡奶油1/2品脱(1量杯)
a chilled 3-quart bowl冰镇过的容量为3夸脱的碗一只
a chilled wire whip or chilled blades of electric beater 冰镇过的线状打蛋器一只或将电动搅拌机的搅拌棒冰镇后使用

slowly until it begins to foam, while circulating the beater all around the bowl and lifting the cream as you whip it. gradually increase the beating speed to moderate and continue until the beater leaves light traces on the surface of the cream. a bit of cream lifted and dropped on the surface will softly retain its shape.
stiffly beaten cream干性起泡奶油
for desserts which require more body, continue beating a few seconds more until the cream is a little bit stiffer and forms soft peaks. do not beat beyond this stage or the cream will become granular, and then begin to turn into butter.
storing whipped cream如何存放打发的奶油
once cream is whipped, it will keep for several hours under refrigeration. as it usually exudes a bit of liquid, it is a good idea to turn it into a fine-meshed sieve and place the sieve over a bowl. this allows any seeping liquid to drop out of the cream.
flavored whipped cream为打发好的奶油调味
before serving, fold in 2 tablespoons of sifted powdered sugar and a tablespoon or two of brandy, rum, or sweet liqueur, or a teaspoon or two of vanilla extract.

5. creaming butter and sugar如何打发黄油和糖
numerous dessert and cake recipes direct that butter and sugar be creamed together; this may be accomplished either by machine or by hand.

electric beater 电动搅打
use the pastry-blender attachment if you have one; you may use the regular beater, but the blades will become clogged. cut the butter into 1/2-inch pieces. warm the large mixing bowl in hot water. dry it, add the butter and sugar, and beat at a moderate speed for several minutes. the mixture is ready to be used when it is light, fluffy, and a pale ivory color.

hand beating手工搅打
if the butter has been left at room temperature for an hour to soften, simply beat the butter and sugar together in a bowl for several minutes until they form a light, fluffy mass. for cold, hard butter, use the following system: cut the butter into 1/2inch pieces and place it with the sugar in a mixing bowl set over barely simmering water. beat with a wooden spoon for several seconds until the butter softens. then set the bowl in a basin of cold water and beat for a minute or two until the mixture is light, fluffy, and a pale ivory color.

6. melted chocolate如何融化巧克力
because baking chocolate burns easily, you should watch it carefully while it melts. to melt chocolate, break it into small pieces or use chocolate drops (2 ounces make 1/3 cup). place the chocolate in a small saucepan with 1/2 to 1 tablespoon strong coffee, rum, or water per ounce or square. set the pan over hot but not simmering water and stir constantly with a wooden spoon for several minutes until the chocolate has melted to a perfectly smooth cream. keep the saucepan in warm water until you are ready to use the chocolate.

7. almonds杏仁
whole, slivered, and powdered almonds have many uses in french pastries and desserts. luckily you can buy blanched almonds in airtight cans at almost any american market, and although you do not often see powdered almonds, it is easy to do them in the electric blender. you will note that all the recipes which use almonds also call for a bit of almond extract to bring out the almond taste. this is not necessary in france, as one or two bitter almonds are always included. but as the oil of bitter almonds is poisonous when taken in too large a quantity, it can only be bought with a doctor's prescription in this country. but be careful with almond extract. it is strong; a few drops or a quarter teaspoon arc usually sufficient.

four ounces of whole, broken, or powdered almonds are equivalent to about 3/4cup or 125grams.

2)blanched almonds 如何给杏仁去皮
drop shelled almonds into boiling water and boil 1 minute. drain. squeeze each almond between the thumb and forefinger, and the almond will slip out of its skin. spread the blanched almonds in a roasting pan and dry them out for 5 minutes in a 35o-degree oven.

3)pulverized almonds 如何磨碎杏仁
if you do not have an electric blender, pound the almonds with a bit of granulated sugar in a mortar, or pass them through a meat grinder with granulated sugar and a few drops of water. if you have a blender, pulverize them 1/2 cup at a time at top speed for about 30 seconds.

4)toasted or grilled almonds烤杏仁或烘杏仁
spread whole, slivered, or powdered almonds in a roasting pan and set in a 35o-degree oven for about 10 minutes. stir them up frequently and keep an eye on them so they do not burn. they should emerge an even, light, toasty brown.
果仁糖(pralin )
[caramelized almonds] [焦糖杏仁]
this delicious ingredient is quickly made and can be stored for weeks in a screw-topped jar. it is used in desserts and sauces, as a sprinkling for ice cream, and as a flavoring for cake icings and fillings. in france, pralin is also made with hazel nuts or a mixture of hazel nurs and almonds.

for about 1 cup约1量杯
1/2 cup slivered or powdered almonds 杏仁片或杏仁粉0.5量杯
1/2 cup granulated sugar白砂糖0.5量杯
an oiled marble slab or large baking sheet 一只涂过油的大理石板 或大号烤盘

toast the almonds in a 3so-degree oven as previously described.

boil the sugar and water in a small saucepan until the sugar caramelizes (see directions for caramel farther on). immediately stir in the toasted almonds. bring just to the boil, then pour onto the marble or baking sheet. when cold, in about 10 minutes, break the hardened mass into pieces. pulverize in the electric blender, pound to a coarse powder in a mortar, or put it through a meat grinder.
pulverized macaroons碎杏仁饼
pulverized stale macaroons may be substituted for pralin. break macaroons into small pieces, spread them in a roasting pan, and set in a 200-degree oven for about an hour. remove when they are fairly dry and lightly browned; they will crisp up as they cool. when crisped, pulverize them in the electric blender, pound in a mortar, or put them through a meat grinder. store in a screw-topped jar where they will keep for weeks.
caramel is sugar syrup cooked until it turns a light, nut brown. it is used as a flavoring or coloring, or for coating a mold.

for about 1/2 cup约0.5量杯
2/3 cup granulated sugar or crushed sugar lumps白砂糖或打碎的方糖2/3量杯
1/3 cup water水1/3量杯
a small, heavy saucepan 一只小号的较重的锅子

place sugar and water in saucepan and swirl (shake pan with circular motion) over moderately high heat until the sugar has dissolved completely. then let the sugar boil, swirling the pan occasionally, until the syrup turns a light, nut brown. this will take 3 to 4 minutes. remove saucepan from heat as soon as the desired color is reached; if you let it darken too much, it will have a bitter taste. use immediately, as directed


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